The Sun Temple, Modhera, Gujarat
The Sun Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the solar god Surya located at Modhera village of Mehsana district, Gujarat, India. it’s placed on the bank of the stream Pushpavati. it absolutely was inbuilt 1026-27 AD throughout the reign of Bhima I of the Chaulukya folk. No worship is obtainable currently and is protected monument maintained by archeologic Survey of India. The temple advanced has 3 components: Gudhamandapa, the shrine hall; Sabhamandapa, the auditorium and Kunda, the reservoir. The halls have in an elaborate way lapidarian exterior and pillars. The reservoir has steps to achieve bottom and various little shrines.
The Sun Temple was designed throughout the reign of Bhima I of Chaulukya folk in 1026-1027 (Vikram Samvat 1083). it’s designed on 23.6° latitude (approximately close to Tropic of Cancer). The place was later called mythical being nickel Chauri and Ramkund regionally. No worship is obtainable here currently. The temple is Monument of National Importance and is maintained by anthropology Survey of India.
The temple advanced is constructed in Maru-Gurjara vogue (Chaulukya style). The temple advanced has 3 axially aligned components; the shrine correct (garbhagriha) in an exceedingly hall (gudhamandapa), the outer or auditorium (sabhamandapa or rangamandapa) and a sacred reservoir (kunda).
The sabhamandapa isn’t in continuation with gudhamandapa however is placed very little away as a separate structure. each one is designed on sealed platform. Their roofs have folded back then forgoing few lower-most courses. each roofs is 15′ 9″ in diameter however are created otherwise. The platform or support is inverted lotus formed.
Gudhamandapa and garbhagriha
The Gudhamandapa measures fifty one feet nine inches by twenty five feet eight inches. it’s virtually equally divided into Gudhamandapa, the hall and garbhgriha, the shrine correct. Each rectangular in set up with one projection on every of the smaller sides and 2 projections on every of the longer sides. This projections on the smaller sides kind the doorway and therefore the back of shrine. The 3 projections of outer wall of Gudhamandapa had windows on both sides and therefore the east projection had the threshold. These windows had perforated stone screens; the northern is in ruins and therefore the southern is missing. Pradakshinamarga is created by the passage between the walls of garbhgriha and therefore the outer walls of gudhamandapa. The roof of passage has stones slabs lapidarian with rosettes. The Shikhara of now does not exists.
The Garbhagriha, the shrine correct or sanctum sanctorum is sq. meter eleven feet from within. The shrine had 2 cells; a cell below the amount of higher cell. the ground of higher cell is currently fallen that once housed the image of spiritual being. The seat of image is currently in pit. The lower cell was in all probability used for storage. The walls within shrine is obvious and outer wall is adorned. The threshold has lapidarian figures of seated Surya in panels enclosed by dancers and amorous couples. All figures are mutilated and therefore the pictures on the door-lintel is totally destroyed.
The sanctum sanctorum is meant in an exceedingly manner that the primary rays of rising sun lit up the image of Surya throughout star equinox days and on solstice day, the sun shines directly on top of the temple at noonday casting no shadow.
The outer walls of shrine is extremely adorned. the bottom and walls of the shrine and hall are divided into many stretches with distinctive carvings. the pitha or adhisthana, base has the 2 sq. members referred to as bhat followed by a cymarecta carving (lower half convex and higher half concave). it’s followed by padma or padmaka, the moulding in sort of inverted lotus. consequent is antarita, a fillet or an astragal with a pointy edge between 2 recesses. on top of this is often patta having skinny moulding referred to as chhaja at its lower edge. consequent is another chhaja separated by neck, alinga. consequent broad band, patti, is gajathara lapidarian with elephants. the subsequent band narathara has figures of men in several attitudes.
Mandovara or wall mouldings
Mandovara, the wall mouldings starts with kumbha, a pitcher. it’s a broad plain band at lower half whereas middle half is adorned with oval discs. it’s followed by kalasha, a pitcher. consequent is broad band with chaitya-windows referred to as kevala followed by similar referred to as manchi. These 2 bands are separated by a deep band. there’s a skinny fillet on top of that the main decorated face of wall referred to as jangha exist. This panels are adorned with figures of gods however the figures of Surya are placed conspicuously than others because the temple is devoted to him. different panels are adorned with dancers and different figures.
The figures of Surya are conspicuously lapidarian on 3 niches of shrine correct also as on the both sides of 3 windows within the outer wall of Gudhamandapa. The figures of Surya is in standing position with 2 arms holding lotuses and driven by seven horses. it’s some Persian influences. The walls have twelve niches showing the various aspects of Surya in monthly. different figures embrace eight Dikpals, Vishwakarma, Varuna, Agni, Ganesha, Saraswati.
Every figure in panel features a little cornice over it head with triangular gable consisting of chaitya-window that is named udgam. consequent protrusive band with chaitya-window and kirtimukha is named malakval. the highest most is that the major cornice referred to as chhajli.
This is followed by shikhara that now not exist. The Vimana had horizontal geometrical and figurative bands that rising to make the Mount Meru-like shikhara. The central steeple had Urushringa, the miniature shrines. it’s judged by the shrines on the steps of Kunda.
The Mandapa, a hall was roofed by a dome that in all probability rose in coaxial manner. it’s supported by eight principal pillars below organized in AN polygonal shape, four pillars ahead of shrine correct and 2 every within the recesses of windows and door.
Sabhamandapa or Rangamandapa, the auditorium or diversion hall is quadrangle in set up with rows of pillars gap entrance on both sides diagonally. The extensively lapidarian exterior has series of recessed corners giving impression of the star like set up of it. There are fifty two in an elaborate way lapidarian pillars. Madhusudan Dhaky has advised that the sabhamandapa might has been later addition supported vogue and construction.
The pitha is sort of the same as the Gudhamandapa however smaller as 2 courses of fillets are omitted. The padma is lapidarian richly here with floral ornamentation.
Above the Narathara, there’s a band with figures of dancers and gods called rajasena. consequent is vedi that correspond to jangha of mandovara adorned with giant panels of gods, goddesses and floral styles. consequent is cornice referred to as asinot. It followed by kakshasana that slopes outward and forms the back-rests of the bench, position that runs around the hall. There are titillating figures on that interrupted by rail-patterns.